Shumin Zhai Research Publications

Click on any of the above for more up to date lists of my publications  I started the following list circa 1994 when the web was at its infancy.  I have not been able to update it properly for the past 10 years. Instead, I hope sites such as ResearchGate will make my research accessible to all researchers and students while respecting various copyright obligations and practices. In addition to PDFs, ACM DL often also has short videos that are open access.

The following two recent articles may not be available elsewhere for a while. They both are Open Access for non-commercial use. 

C-PAK: Correcting and Completing Variable-length Prefix-based Abbreviated Keystrokes

Tianshi LiPhilip QuinnShumin Zhai

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), Accepted May 2022, https://doi.org/10.1145/3544101

Deep Touch: Sensing Press Gestures from Touch Image Sequences
Philip Quinn, Wenxin Feng, Shumin Zhai

In Yang Li & Otmar Hilliges (Eds)​​, Artificial Intelligence for Human Computer Interaction: A Modern Approach

 

[Older papers, see Google Scholar or Research Gate for papers since 2018]

Modeling gesture-typing movements

P Quinn, S Zhai

Human–Computer Interaction 33 (3), 234-280,  2018

 

M3 Gesture Menu: Design and Experimental Analyses of Marking Menus for Touchscreen Mobile Interaction

J Zheng, X Bi, K Li, Y Li, S Zhai, 2018

 

Modern Touchscreen Keyboards as Intelligent User Interfaces: A Research Review

S Zhai

Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 1-2 (Conference Keynote Abstract), 2017

 

A cost-benefit study of text entry suggestion interaction

P Quinn, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems …

 

WatchWriter: Tap and gesture typing on a smartwatch miniature keyboard with statistical decoding

M Gordon, T Ouyang, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

 

IJqwerty: What difference does one key change make? Gesture typing keyboard optimization bounded by one key position change from Qwerty

X Bi, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

 

TOCHI Editor-in-Chief Transition: Farewell from Shumin Zhai, Welcome Ken Hinckley

S Zhai

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 22 (6), 2015

 

Differences and similarities between finger and pen stroke gestures on stationary and mobile devices

H Tu, X Ren, S Zhai

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 22 (5), 2015

 

Long short term memory neural network for keyboard gesture decoding

O Alsharif, T Ouyang, F Beaufays, S Zhai, T Breuel, J Schalkwyk

Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2015 IEEE International …

 

Optimizing touchscreen keyboards for gesture typing

BA Smith, X Bi, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing …2015

 

Effects of language modeling and its personalization on touchscreen typing performance

A Fowler, K Partridge, C Chelba, X Bi, T Ouyang, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing …2015

 

Performance and user experience of touchscreen and gesture keyboards in a lab setting and in the wild

S Reyal, S Zhai, PO Kristensson

Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing …2015

 

Both complete and correct?: multi-objective optimization of touchscreen keyboard

X Bi, T Ouyang, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

2014

 

TOCHI turns twenty (Editorial)

S Zhai

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 21 (1), 1

Understanding multilingual touchscreen keyboard design and optimization

X Bi, BA Smith, S Zhai

Human-Computer Interaction,{http://dx. doi. org/10.1080/07370024.2011. 625237}

Shapewriter on the iphone: from the laboratory to the real world

S Zhai, PO Kristensson, P Gong, M Greiner, SA Peng, LM Liu, A Dunnigan

CHI'09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2667-2670

2009

 

Using strokes as command shortcuts: cognitive benefits and toolkit support

C Appert, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

2009

 

The performance of touch screen soft buttons

S Lee, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

2009

 

System and method for issuing commands based on pen motions on a graphical keyboard

S Zhai, PO Kristensson

US Patent 7,487,461

 

Introduction to computer input devices and their evaluation

S Zhai

Retrieved from IBM Almaden Research Center web site: http://www. almaden …

2009

 

Gaze-aided human-computer and human-human dialogue

P Qvarfordt, S Zhai

Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems …

2009

 

Delivering Unified User Experience By Automatically Teaming Up Information Appliances With General Purpose PC Through Internet

M Yin, S Zhai

US Patent App. 11/668,054

2008

 

Apparatus and method using color-coded or pattern-coded keys in two-key input per character text entry

E Kandogan, S Zhai

US Patent 7,362,243

2008

 

Interlaced QWERTY: accommodating ease of visual search and input flexibility in shape writing

S Zhai, PO Kristensson

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

262008

 

On the ease and efficiency of human-computer interfaces

S Zhai

Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Eye tracking research & applications, 9-10

2008

 

Improving word-recognizers using an interactive lexicon with active and passive words

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 13th international conference on Intelligent user …

2008

 

Introduction to shape writing

S Zhai, PO Kristensson

192007

 

System and method for recognizing word patterns based on a virtual keyboard layout

S Zhai

US Patent 7,251,367

1142007

 

Hard lessons: effort-inducing interfaces benefit spatial learning

A Cockburn, PO Kristensson, J Alexander, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

442007

 

Command strokes with and without preview: using pen gestures on keyboard for command selection

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

452007

 

Modeling human performance of pen stroke gestures

X Cao, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

942007

 

Learning shape writing by game playing

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

CHI'07 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1971-1976

222007

 

Mobile interaction techniques II

S Zhai

Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Proceedings of the SIGCHI …

2007

 

Beyond the desktop metaphor in seven dimensions

TP Moran, S Zhai

Beyond the Desktop Metaphor—Designing Integrated Digital Work Environments …

242007

 

Camera phone based motion sensing: interaction techniques, applications and performance study

J Wang, S Zhai, J Canny

Proceedings of the 19th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and …

1672006

 

Edge touchpad input device

BA Smith, S Zhai

US Patent 7,088,343

1512006

 

The benefits of augmenting telephone voice menu navigation with visual browsing and search

M Yin, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems …

542006

 

System and method for accelerating Chinese text input

H Su, J Wang, S Zhai

US Patent 7,013,258

592006

 

General Editorial and Management Board

D Murray, G Lindgaard, D Day, J Noyes, R Brooks, DP Browne, ...

Interacting with Computers 3 (1), U991

2006

 

Dial and see: tackling the voice menu navigation problem with cross-device user experience integration

M Yin, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 18th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and …

202005

 

Realtourist–a study of augmenting human-human and human-computer dialogue with eye-gaze overlay

P Qvarfordt, D Beymer, S Zhai

IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 767-780

292005

 

Connection time for strange devices

JJ Barton, F Folowosele, S Nylander, M Houston, S Zhai

Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2006. WMCSA'06. Proceedings. 7th …

22005

 

Mobile phones will become the primary personal computing devices

JJ Barton, S Zhai, SB Cousins

Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2006. WMCSA'06. Proceedings. 7th …

582005

 

Typing accuracy relaxation system and method in stylus and other keyboards

J Karidis, P Kristensson, S Zhai

US Patent App. 10/723,469

282005

 

Conversing with the user based on eye-gaze patterns

P Qvarfordt, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

1662005

 

System and method for selectively expanding or contracting a portion of a display using eye-gaze tracking

S Farrell, S Zhai

US Patent App. 10/648,120

52005

 

Introduction to sensing-based interaction

S Zhai, V Bellotti

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 12 (1), 1-2

162005

 

Smooth scrolling system and method

S Zhai

US Patent 6,856,326

272005

 

Relaxing stylus typing precision by geometric pattern matching

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Intelligent user …

772005

 

CHI... Conference Proceedings

W Kellogg, S Zhai, C Gale, GC Veer

Association for Computing Machinery

2005

 

SHARK: Fast High-Accuracy Text Entry and Command Input on Pen-based Computers

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

Mälardalen University

2005

 

Explorations and Experiments on the Use of Auditory and Visual Feedback in Pen-Gesture Interfaces

TH Andersen, S Zhai

Tech Report 04/16

2004

 

Speed–accuracy tradeoff in Fitts’ law tasks—on the equivalency of actual and nominal pointing precision

S Zhai, J Kong, X Ren

International journal of human-computer studies 61 (6), 823-856

1672004

 

Characterizing computer input with Fitts’ law parameters—the information and non-information aspects of pointing

S Zhai

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 61 (6), 791-809

1692004

 

SHARK 2: a large vocabulary shorthand writing system for pen-based computers

PO Kristensson, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 17th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and …

2592004

 

Two-key input per character text entry apparatus and method

E Kandogan, S Zhai

US Patent 6,765,556

662004

 

 

View size and pointing difficulty in multi-scale navigation

Y Guiard, M Beaudouin-Lafon, J Bastin, D Pasveer, S Zhai

Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces, 117-124

422004

 

Top-down learning strategies: can they facilitate stylus keyboard learning?

PUJ Lee, S Zhai

International journal of human-computer studies 60 (5-6), 585-598

272004

 

TNT: a numeric keypad based text input method

M Ingmarsson, D Dinka, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

632004

 

Human action laws in electronic virtual worlds: an empirical study of path steering performance in VR

S Zhai, J Accot, R Woltjer

Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 13 (2), 113-127

812004

 

In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing

S Zhai, PO Kristensson, BA Smith

Interacting with computers 17 (3), 229-250

722004

 

Relaxing Stylus Typing Precision by Geometric Pattern Matching

S Zhai

2004

 

The Computer Mouse and Related Input Devices

S Zhai

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Human-‐Computer Interaction. WS Bainbridge (ed)

22004

 

Paul P. Maglio, Teenie Matlock, Christopher S. Campbell

S Zhai, BA Smith

Advances in Multimodal Interfaces-ICMI 2000: Third International Conference …

2003

 

Human on-line response to target expansion

S Zhai, S Conversy, M Beaudouin-Lafon, Y Guiard

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

1522003

 

Refining Fitts' law models for bivariate pointing

J Accot, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

2182003

 

Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard

S Zhai, PO Kristensson

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

2792003

 

High precision touch screen interaction

PA Albinsson, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

3872003

 

Why Don't You Trust Me Anymore? Or the Role of Trust in Troubleshooting Activities of System Administrators

E Kandogan, PP Maglio

Proc. of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2003)

72003

 

Human movement performance in relation to path constraint-the law of steering in locomotion

S Zhai, R Woltjer

Virtual Reality, 2003. Proceedings. IEEE, 149-156

282003What's in the eyes for attentive input

S Zhai

Communications of the ACM 46 (3), 34-39

1192003

 

Candidate Display Styles in Japanese Input.

X Ren, K Tamura, J Kong, S Zhai

INTERACT

62003

 

Collaboration meets Fitts' law: Passing virtual objects with and without haptic force feedback

EL Sallnäs, S Zhai

IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 97-104

592003

 

Visual scrolling feedback and method of achieving the same

MC Wirth, S Zhai

US Patent 6,476,831

642002

 

Performance optimization of virtual keyboards

S Zhai, M Hunter, BA Smith

Human–Computer Interaction 17 (2-3), 229-269

2582002

 

On the validity of throughput as a characteristic of computer input

S Zhai

Almaden Research Center

292002

 

System and method for selection of vehicular sideview mirrors via eye gaze

SR Alpert, S Zhai

US Patent 6,397,137

232002

 

Method and apparatus for determining eye contact

A Amir, MD Flickner, DB Koons, CH Morimoto, S Zhai

US Patent 6,393,136

942002

 

Movement model, hits distribution and learning in virtual keyboarding

S Zhai, A Sue, J Accot

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

2002

 

More than dotting the i's---foundations for crossing-based interfaces

J Accot, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

2002

 

Multiplexing control device and method for electronic systems

S Zhai, PE Partin

US Patent 6,340,800

2002

 

Human input to computer systems: theories, techniques and technology

W Buxton, M Billinghurst, Y Guiard, A Sellen, S Zhai

Manuscrito de livro em andamento, sem editora

2002

 

Graphical user interface with anti-interference outlines for enhanced variably-transparent applications

BL Harrison, WAS Buxton, S Zhai

US Patent 6,317,128

1072001

 

Mouth operated input device for an electronically responsive device

CJ Salem, S Zhai

US Patent 6,222,524

2001

 

Alphabetically biased virtual keyboards are easier to use: layout does matter

S Zhai, BA Smith

CHI'01 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, 321-322

342001

 

Integrated gaze/manual cursor positioning system

A Amir, MD Flickner, SC Ihde, S Zhai

US Patent 6,204,828

782001

 

Chinese input with keyboard and eye-tracking: an anatomical study

J Wang, S Zhai, H Su

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

762001

 

Scale effects in steering law tasks

J Accot, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, 1-8

1432001

 

Keyboard having third button for multimode operation

EJ Selker, BA Smith, S Zhai

US Patent 6,188,390

102001

 

Input for three dimensional navigation using two joysticks

E Kandogan, BA Smith, S Zhai

US Patent 6,184,867

202001

 

Designing Feedback for an Attentive Office.

T Matlock, CS Campbell, PP Maglio, S Zhai, BA Smith

INTERACT, 721-722

42001

 

Telepresence under Exceptional Circumstances: Enriching the Connection to School for Sick Children.

DI Fels, JK Waalen, S Zhai, PL Weiss

INTERACT, 617-624

462001

 

Hand eye coordination patterns in target selection

BA Smith, J Ho, W Ark, S Zhai

Proceedings of the 2000 symposium on Eye tracking research & applications …

752000

 

The metropolis keyboard-an exploration of quantitative techniques for virtual keyboard design

S Zhai, M Hunter, BA Smith

Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and …

2000

 

Physics-based graphical keyboard design

M Hunter, S Zhai, BA Smith

CHI'00 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, 157-158

2000

 

Gaze and speech in attentive user interfaces

PP Maglio, T Matlock, CS Campbell, S Zhai, BA Smith

Advances in Multimodal Interfaces—ICMI 2000, 1-7

2000

 

What You Feel Must Be What You See: Adding Tactile Feedback to the Trackpoint.

CS Campbell, S Zhai, KM May, PP Maglio

INTERACT, 383-390

1999

 

Finger manipulatable 6 degree-of-freedom input device

S Zhai, P Milgram

US Patent 5,923,318

1999

 

Performance evaluation of input devices in trajectory-based tasks: an application of the steering law

J Accot, S Zhai

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

1999

 

Manual and gaze input cascaded (MAGIC) pointing

S Zhai, C Morimoto, S Ihde

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …

1999

 

In search of the ‘magic carpet’: Design and experimentation of a bimanual 3d navigation interface

S Zhai, E Kandogan, BA Smith, T Selker

Journal of Visual Languages & Computing 10 (1), 3-17

441999

 

Multistream input: an experimental study of document scrolling methods

S Zhai, BA Smith

IBM Systems Journal 38 (4), 642-651

1999

 

Keeping an eye for HCI

CH Morimoto, D Koons, A Amit, M Flickner, S Zhai

Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 1999. Proceedings. XII Brazilian …

1999

 

Manual and cognitive benefits of two-handed input: an experimental study

A Leganchuk, S Zhai, W Buxton

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 5 (4), 326-359

1998

 

Interaction in 3D graphics

S Zhai

SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Newsletter 32 (4)

1998

 

User performance in relation to 3D input device design

S Zhai

ACM Siggraph Computer Graphics 32 (4), 50-54

217

 

1998 Landmarks to aid navigation in a graphical user interface

DC Dryer, T Selker, S Zhai

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Division

1998

 

Representation matters: The effect of 3D objects and a spatial metaphor in a graphical user interface

W Ark, DC Dryer, T Selker, S Zhai

People and Computers XIII, 209-219

1998

 

Teaching old mice new tricks: Innovations in computer mouse design

S Zhai, IS MacKenzie

Proceedings of Ergon-Axia 98, 80-83

1998

 

Quantifying coordination in multiple DOF movement and its application to evaluating 6 DOF input devices

S Zhai, P Milgram

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

91998

 

Investigating coordination in multidegree of freedom control I: time-on-target analysis of 6 DOF tracking

S Zhai, JW Senders

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 41 (2 …

1997

 

Anisotropic human performance in six degree-of-freedom tracking: An evaluation of three-dimensional display and control interfaces

S Zhai, P Milgram, A Rastogi

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and …

1997

 

Visual attention techniques in the graphical user interface

JD Wright, S Zhai, T Selker, SA Kelin

Human Vision and Electronic Imaging II 3016, 215-223

1997An isometric tongue pointing device

C Salem, S Zhai

Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in computing …

1997

 

Beyond Fitts' law: models for trajectory-based HCI tasks

J Accot, S Zhai

Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in computing …

1997

 

Dual stream input for pointing and scrolling

S Zhai, BA Smith, T Selker

CHI'97 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 305-306

1997

 

Graphical means of directing users’ attention in the visual interface

S Zhai, J Wright, T Selker, SA Kelin

Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT’97, 59-66

1997

 

A comparative study on criminological characteristics of homicides in schizophrenics

C Han, J Wang, S Zhai

CHINESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY 30, 25-27

1997

 

Representation Matters: Spatial Interface Can Facilitate Target Acquisition

T Selker, I May, S Zhai

IBM Research Division

1997

 

Improving Browsing Performance: A study of four input devices for scrolling and pointing tasks

S Zhai, BA Smith, T Selker

Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT’97, 286-293

1997

 

The partial-occlusion effect: Utilizing semitransparency in 3D human-computer interaction

S Zhai, W Buxton, P Milgram

ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 3 (3), 254-284

1996

 

The influence of muscle groups on performance of multiple degree-of-freedom input

S Zhai, P Milgram, W Buxton

Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems …

1996

 

The effects of using fine muscle groups in multiple degree-of-freedom input

S Zhai, P Milgram, W Buxton

Proc. ACM CHI 96, 308-315

1996

 

Human performance in six degree of freedom input control.

S Zhai

University of Toronto

1996

 

Merging real and virtual worlds

P Milgram, D Drascic, JJ Grodski, A Restogi, S Zhai, C Zhou

Proceedings of IMAGINA 95, 218-230, 1995

 

Asymmetrical spatial accuracy in 3D tracking

S Zhai, P Milgram

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 38 (4 …

191994

 

Input techniques for HCI in 3D Environments

S Zhai, P Milgram

Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems, 85-86, 1994

 

The “Silk Cursor”: investigating transparency for 3D target acquisition

S Zhai, W Buxton, P Milgram

Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems …1994

 

Input Techniques for 3-D Environments

S Zhai

ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1994

 

Semi-transparent" silk" user interface objects: Supporting focused and divided attention

BL Harrison, S Zhai, KJ Vicente, W Buxton

CEL Technical Report, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of …1994

 

Human performance evaluation of isometric and elastic rate controllers in a six-degree-of-freedom tracking task

S Zhai, P Milgram

Telemanipulator Technology and Space Telerobotics 2057, 130-142, 1993

 

Investigation of feel for 6DOF inputs: Isometric and elastic rate control for manipulation in 3D environments

S Zhai

Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 37 (4 …1993

 

Human performance evaluation of manipulation schemes in virtual environments

S Zhai, P Milgram

Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993., 1993 IEEE, 155-161

1391993

 

From icons to interface models: designing hypermedia from the bottom up

JA Waterworth, MH Chignell, SM Zhai

International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 39 (3), 453-472, 1993

 

Applications of augmented reality for human-robot communication

P Milgram, S Zhai, D Drascic, J Grodski

Intelligent Robots and Systems' 93, IROS'93. Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE …1993

 

Virtual reality for palmtop computers

GW Fitzmaurice, S Zhai, MH Chignell

ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) 11 (3), 197-218, 1993

 

ARGOS: A display system for augmenting reality

D Drascic, JJ Grodski, P Milgram, K Ruffo, P Wong, S Zhai

Proceedings of the INTERACT'93 and CHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1993

 

An evaluation of four 6 degree-of-freedom input techniques

S Zhai, P Milgram, D Drascic

INTERACT'93 and CHI'93 Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1993

 

An evaluation of four 6 degree-of-freedom input techniques," Adjunct

S ZHAI

Proc. INTERCHI'93: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 

1993

 

Human-robot synergism and virtual telerobotic control

S Zhai, P Milgram

PROCEEDINGS-HUMAN FACTORS ASSOCIATION OF CANADA 25, 201-201, 1992

 

Telerobotic virtual control system

S Zhai, P Milgram

Cooperative Intelligent Robotics in Space II 1612, 311-323, 1992

 

An information structural model of vehicle navigation and its implications

S Zhai

Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, 1991 2, 1-7

Gaze and Speech in Attentive User Interfaces

P Maglio, T Matlock, CS Campbell, S Zhai, BA Smith

Lecture Notes in Computer Science 

Phone N’Computer (PnC) Teaming up an Information Appliance with a PC

M Yin, J Pierce, S Zhai

Three different approaches to the law of steering: A historical review

J Accot, S Zhai

Augmented Reality and Teleoperation

D Drascic, S Zhai, P Milgram, JJ Grodski

Applications of Augmented Reality to Human-Robot Synergism

P Milgram, S Zhai, D Drascic, J Grodski